Projekt Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

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  • O projektu Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

    Od srede 14. stoletja do leta 1942 je bilo na Kočevskem okrog 800 kvadratnih kilometrov veliko nemško jezikovno območje. Nacistična okupacijska oblast, ki je iz večih dežel v Evropi množično preseljevala svoje rojake v rajh, je po italijanski zasedbi Kočevske leta 1941 preselila tudi majhno (okoli 12.000 oseb) nemško narodnostno skupino na Kočevskem. Določili so ji območje ob Savi in Sotli na Spodnjem Štajerskem, s katerega so pred tem izgnali večino Slovencev.Po drugi svetovni vojni je bila usoda kočevskih Nemcev takšna kot usoda drugih Nemcev na Slovenskem. Tiste, ki se ob koncu vojne niso umaknili z nemško vojsko, in tudi nekaj tistih, ki so ostali na Kočevskem, so nove jugoslovanske oblastiizgnale v Avstrijo. Kasneje so se razkropili in naselili po avstrijskih in nemških pokrajinah, precej pa jih je odšlo v ZDA. Izselitev kočevskih Nemcev, vojno opustošenje, povojno propadanje ter načrtno rušenje predvsem sakralnih objektov sredi 50. let prejšnjega stoletja, so imeli za to območje daljnosežne in usodne posledice. Več kot polovica od 176 vasi na Kočevskem je bilo porušenih in jo danes prerašča gozd, od 123 cerkva se jih je ohranilo le 28, od okoli 400 kapelic in znamenj jih najdemo le še desetino. Številna pokopališča so zravnana ali pa so bili nemški nagrobniki na njih odstranjeni. Poleg spremenjene narodnostne podobe so se korenito spremenile tudi gospodarske in lastninske razmere in zemljiška sestava območja.Kraški in gozdni teren Kočevskega Roga je s svojimi globokimi brezni po vojni služil tudi za množične poboje nekaj tisoč vrnjenih domobrancev in drugih nasprotnikov partizanskega gibanja. Kmalu so na tem območju nastala kazenska in delovna taborišča in obsežno zaprto območje s posebnim režimom. Danes le še redki materialni ostanki spominjajo na 600 letno navzočnost nemške narodne skupine sredi slovenskega ozemlja. Na predstavitvenih tablah zato s sliko in besedo odkrivamo podobe nekdanjih vasi, krajine in prebivalcev, ki so stoletja sooblikovali Kočevsko. Avtor teksta: dr. Mitja Ferenc

  • O projektu "Izgubljene kočevarske vasi"

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The settlement belongs to a group of places in the Kočevje region which are named after animals (Slo. jelen = Eng. a stag). It is a typical industrial place, built around a steam sawmill which belonged to the Prince of Auersperg. Its beginnings go back to 1894, when machinery from the sawmill in Mokri Potok near Gotenica was moved to a spot behind the district road Grčarice-Rakitnica. And the spot’s name was Jelendol. 

Searching for the most suitable location of a steam sawmill, they found a strong spring called Jama. Its water capacity would be sufficient for the mill. The spring was 13 m deep in the ground, so water was pumped 60 m high into a reservoir next to the sawmill, which was transferred here for economic reasons. Namely, in 1893 the railway line to Kočevje was built, so the sawmill was moved closer to the railway station in Ribnica, just 12 km away from Jelendol. 

In approximately 1894 the workers’ settlement was built, and so were the auxiliary plants: a forge, a locksmith’s workshop, and a waterworks with pumps. Anton Šutej, who got the sawmill on lease, re-formed the plants in the beginning of 20th century. He enlarged the saw workshop with storage for sawn wood and a log stakes, and also added some new buildings for lodging and a canteen. He modernised the equipment to make this sawmill for the most advanced one in the Kočevje region. Here, 10.000 m3 of logs were produced yearly. The sawmill was profitable for its entire existence. 

After World War I the sawmill was taken over by the Prince of Auersperg. In 1922 the sawmill burnt down, but was restored to its former condition. In the 1930s its production was expanded, and 700 wagons of boards were exported to Italy, Spain, and even Africa. After it burnt down again - during World War II - the sawmill was not restored. 

Until 1933 Jelendol belonged to the municipality, parish, and school district of Grčarice. Later it belonged to the 5 km distant municipality of Dolenja vas. Today it belongs to the Municipality of Ribnica. But, during Austrian regime inhabitants of Jelendol were registered together with the people of Grčarske Ravne. They were mostly Slovenians and Croatians, with just few families being of German origin. In 1941, on December 8th, the Gottschee Germans - 15 people from 3 families - emigrated to the territories Posavje and Obsotelje, which were occupied by the Reich’s Germans. At the end of World War II the sawmill area was unpopulated and all of four houses were destroyed. In the 1960s it had two larger buildings, but no permanent residents, as it was a temporary lodging for forestry workers. The houses were removed in the 1980’s.

The remnants of the settlement, mainly the fountains connected by rocks, can still be seen in the woods at the right side of main road which leads to Grčarice. The striking concrete walls, which one can find in the middle of a thicket, although they are grown over by moss and ivy, still remind one of the former lordship human hands had over this spot. 

The World War II fatally marked out this spot, but not only by the destruction of the sawmill. In the area of Jelendol, there is also a war graveyard. One can reach it when driving back in the direction of Ribnica for about a kilometre. A smaller brown sign which says “Jelendol” can be noticed by a tree and – if one looks for crosses painted by the trees – at a distance of some 200 m, one can find himself in front of a monument. It was raised at the point where members of  the Security Information Service liquidated 119 village members of the Home Guard in Jelendol, after they were sentenced to death at a Partisan tribunal in Ribnica. One person rescued himself from the scaffold and described the events even during the war. Members of Home Guard were able to excavate the victims a year later. They were able to identify more than a half of them. Among the bodies there were also 3 women. 90 of them were buried at a graveyard in Hrovača, and the rest were taken by relatives to be buried in family graves.

 

Predstavitev vasi v besedi in sliki

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  • Borovec Pri Kočevki Reki
  • Czmk
  • GLAŽUTA, Karlshütten, Gloschhittn
  • INLAUF, Inlauf, Inlaf
  • Izgubljene Kočevarske Vasi
  • JELENDOL, Hirisgruben
  • KUKOVO, Rapljevo, Kukundorf, Kukndoarf
  • Mitja Ferenc
  • Morobitz
  • Mröbitz
  • Nemška Loka, Unterdeutschau, Agə
  • ONEK, Honegg, Wrneggə
  • RAJHENAV, Reichenau, Reichenagə
  • Rajndol, Reintal, Reintol
  • Tvkocevje
  • VERDRENG Podlesje, Verdreng, Vərdreng