Projekt Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

Izberi jezik

  • O projektu Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

    Od srede 14. stoletja do leta 1942 je bilo na Kočevskem okrog 800 kvadratnih kilometrov veliko nemško jezikovno območje. Nacistična okupacijska oblast, ki je iz večih dežel v Evropi množično preseljevala svoje rojake v rajh, je po italijanski zasedbi Kočevske leta 1941 preselila tudi majhno (okoli 12.000 oseb) nemško narodnostno skupino na Kočevskem. Določili so ji območje ob Savi in Sotli na Spodnjem Štajerskem, s katerega so pred tem izgnali večino Slovencev.Po drugi svetovni vojni je bila usoda kočevskih Nemcev takšna kot usoda drugih Nemcev na Slovenskem. Tiste, ki se ob koncu vojne niso umaknili z nemško vojsko, in tudi nekaj tistih, ki so ostali na Kočevskem, so nove jugoslovanske oblastiizgnale v Avstrijo. Kasneje so se razkropili in naselili po avstrijskih in nemških pokrajinah, precej pa jih je odšlo v ZDA. Izselitev kočevskih Nemcev, vojno opustošenje, povojno propadanje ter načrtno rušenje predvsem sakralnih objektov sredi 50. let prejšnjega stoletja, so imeli za to območje daljnosežne in usodne posledice. Več kot polovica od 176 vasi na Kočevskem je bilo porušenih in jo danes prerašča gozd, od 123 cerkva se jih je ohranilo le 28, od okoli 400 kapelic in znamenj jih najdemo le še desetino. Številna pokopališča so zravnana ali pa so bili nemški nagrobniki na njih odstranjeni. Poleg spremenjene narodnostne podobe so se korenito spremenile tudi gospodarske in lastninske razmere in zemljiška sestava območja.Kraški in gozdni teren Kočevskega Roga je s svojimi globokimi brezni po vojni služil tudi za množične poboje nekaj tisoč vrnjenih domobrancev in drugih nasprotnikov partizanskega gibanja. Kmalu so na tem območju nastala kazenska in delovna taborišča in obsežno zaprto območje s posebnim režimom. Danes le še redki materialni ostanki spominjajo na 600 letno navzočnost nemške narodne skupine sredi slovenskega ozemlja. Na predstavitvenih tablah zato s sliko in besedo odkrivamo podobe nekdanjih vasi, krajine in prebivalcev, ki so stoletja sooblikovali Kočevsko. Avtor teksta: dr. Mitja Ferenc

  • O projektu "Izgubljene kočevarske vasi"

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The village was arranged in a small Carst field. This fact is probably connected to the origin of its name. The German expression: “an der reichen Au” literally means: “at the rich meadow”. In a way, the name reminds of the arrival of colonists from Carinthia, where many settlements and fallows bear similar names. Rajhenav developed into type of a road-side and junction settlement with a substantially broadened road in the middle. 

The settlement was among the oldest ones in the Gottschee region. Its origin reaches back to the end of colonisation around 1400. The German speaking colonists came first then, in the Kočevski Rog area, and often came together with Slovenian natives to look for new land to progress even deeper in the woods to produce fields and pastures. By clearing these woods, they gradually gained some cultivable land and established villages. According to the Land Register Book from 1574, a settlement by the name Reichnau included 10 properties or estates divided into 20 halfway farms. There were 36 land owners living here, along with 135-145 inhabitants. At the time the village was one of the largest ones in the Gottschee region. 

In 1869 Rajhenav officially had 58 houses and 280 inhabitants. From 1880 to 1931 the number of inhabitants decreased permanently; only half of the population of Rajhenav remained, compared to five decades earlier. In 1936 seven of the 58 numbered houses were empty and 20 were already in ruins, mostly because of emigration. 

The villagers made their living by farming and stockbreeding. The place was well known for its high quality cattle. They also produced wooden buckets and other wooden articles. Some of them were sold at other villages. Some of the families were supported by relatives in America. The first provisional school with a year long programme was opened in 1880. From 1905 on, the school had one class and teaching was done in German. Until 1926, when the school committee bought house No. 34, it did not have its own building. In 1929 they built one. It was modest: made from wood, rough-casted, and with only one classroom. Only children from Rajhenav went to this school. Each year there were from 20 to 30 pupils in average. The school was closed during the Gottschee Germans’ departure. There was also a voluntary fire brigade organised in the village, which had already been established in 1907. Furthermore, the villagers organised their own branch office of the Red Cross. But, the municipality office and a parish were in Koprivnik, 5 km away. 

The German inhabitants, 130 people from 28 houses, departed in 1941, between December 3rd and 17th. Afterwards, the largest village in Kočevski Rog started to decay rapidly. It was finally demolished during an offensive at Rog in August 1942. Italian soldiers systematically burned down the houses, and according to the inventory at the end of war, all 44 houses had been destroyed. After World War II the settlement was not rebuilt and repopulated. In its place there was only a smaller state estate for breeding cattle. Two of the houses were restored. In the 1970s this estate too was abandoned, but soon after the Yugoslavian Army took up residence there, bringing telephone lines and electricity to it.  

Rajhenav is the birth place of Viktor Stalzer (25. 11. 1920-12. 12. 2005), one of the founders of Gottschee Landmannschaft in Klagenfurt, and for many years its president. He also co-founded and edited Gottscheer Zeitung, of which the modern edition has been published from 1955 onwards. 

In 1996 Alojz Brdnik settled in Rajhenav, mainly to breed cattle of the best meat sorts. He followed in Rajhenav’s rich stockbreeding history, when in the times of Maria Theresa oxen were bred here. At Brdnik’s home – house No. 1 – there are two memorial plaques. One is a reminder of World War II and the Tomšič Brigade, and the other of the arising of an independent Slovenia, when the Territorial Guard took over one of the buildings of the Yugoslav Army.  

A succursal or supplementary church was erected in the middle of the elongated village, along the road. The building was consecrated as St. Mary Magdalene’s in the 18th century. The slender lines of the building, as seen in old photos, show that the church originates from the 17th century. In the second half of the century it was mentioned by Valvasor in his field registers. 

During World War II the church was destroyed by fire. For the most part the burnt walls were removed in the beginning of the 1960s, and many of the stones were used for consolidating roads in the woods. On the location of the former church there is still one column with the date of 1926 – the last reminder of what was once a mighty church. 

On the settlement’s west side the St. Eliah Chapel, erected in approximately 1785, was once located. On the spot there are only a few partially recognisable stones remaining from the nave’s foundation and from the southern wall of the altar niche. 

Predstavitev vasi v besedi in sliki

  • All
  • Borovec Pri Kočevki Reki
  • Czmk
  • GLAŽUTA, Karlshütten, Gloschhittn
  • INLAUF, Inlauf, Inlaf
  • Izgubljene Kočevarske Vasi
  • JELENDOL, Hirisgruben
  • KUKOVO, Rapljevo, Kukundorf, Kukndoarf
  • Mitja Ferenc
  • Morobitz
  • Mröbitz
  • Nemška Loka, Unterdeutschau, Agə
  • ONEK, Honegg, Wrneggə
  • RAJHENAV, Reichenau, Reichenagə
  • Rajndol, Reintal, Reintol
  • Tvkocevje
  • VERDRENG Podlesje, Verdreng, Vərdreng