Projekt Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

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  • O projektu Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

    Od srede 14. stoletja do leta 1942 je bilo na Kočevskem okrog 800 kvadratnih kilometrov veliko nemško jezikovno območje. Nacistična okupacijska oblast, ki je iz večih dežel v Evropi množično preseljevala svoje rojake v rajh, je po italijanski zasedbi Kočevske leta 1941 preselila tudi majhno (okoli 12.000 oseb) nemško narodnostno skupino na Kočevskem. Določili so ji območje ob Savi in Sotli na Spodnjem Štajerskem, s katerega so pred tem izgnali večino Slovencev.Po drugi svetovni vojni je bila usoda kočevskih Nemcev takšna kot usoda drugih Nemcev na Slovenskem. Tiste, ki se ob koncu vojne niso umaknili z nemško vojsko, in tudi nekaj tistih, ki so ostali na Kočevskem, so nove jugoslovanske oblastiizgnale v Avstrijo. Kasneje so se razkropili in naselili po avstrijskih in nemških pokrajinah, precej pa jih je odšlo v ZDA. Izselitev kočevskih Nemcev, vojno opustošenje, povojno propadanje ter načrtno rušenje predvsem sakralnih objektov sredi 50. let prejšnjega stoletja, so imeli za to območje daljnosežne in usodne posledice. Več kot polovica od 176 vasi na Kočevskem je bilo porušenih in jo danes prerašča gozd, od 123 cerkva se jih je ohranilo le 28, od okoli 400 kapelic in znamenj jih najdemo le še desetino. Številna pokopališča so zravnana ali pa so bili nemški nagrobniki na njih odstranjeni. Poleg spremenjene narodnostne podobe so se korenito spremenile tudi gospodarske in lastninske razmere in zemljiška sestava območja.Kraški in gozdni teren Kočevskega Roga je s svojimi globokimi brezni po vojni služil tudi za množične poboje nekaj tisoč vrnjenih domobrancev in drugih nasprotnikov partizanskega gibanja. Kmalu so na tem območju nastala kazenska in delovna taborišča in obsežno zaprto območje s posebnim režimom. Danes le še redki materialni ostanki spominjajo na 600 letno navzočnost nemške narodne skupine sredi slovenskega ozemlja. Na predstavitvenih tablah zato s sliko in besedo odkrivamo podobe nekdanjih vasi, krajine in prebivalcev, ki so stoletja sooblikovali Kočevsko. Avtor teksta: dr. Mitja Ferenc

  • O projektu "Izgubljene kočevarske vasi"

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According to the Kočevje Registry Book, in 1574 they counted 8 estates (called huba), already divided into halfway farms. The later ones enabled pretty modest surviving. A soil around the village is shallow. But position of the village is rather favourable and sunny. 

During 19th century here were approx. 30 landlords. They supported themselves by animal husbandry, pasturing and growing fruits, mainly apples, pears and walnuts. Beekeeping was developed, too. There was scarce surplus of a harvest, so people from Onek needed to seek earnings by working in the woods, selling firewood and sawing as well as by hawking. 

The population number was nearly not oscillating during the Austrian censuses: 180-185. The Yugoslavian censuses recorded 166 villagers in 1921 and 139 ten years later. More than one person spoke Slovenian or had it as mother tongue only at the break of century (12) and in 1931 (9). 

A provisional school was in the village since 1846. A teaching went on at several private houses. In 1884 the Municipality bought house No. 3 and restored it into a one-class-only school. During school year 1908/9, the first three Slovenian pupils were enrolled. But until 1919 there was only a teaching in German. Slovenian department of school was organised in 1930. Pupils came also from Mačkovec.

In 1931 there were 37 houses in Onek. On 22. 8. 1932 many of them burnt down during one of the largest firebreaks recorded in the Kočevska region. After detailed examination of circumstances in the Nationality Registry (1936) 48 numbered houses were recorded, 19 of them empty and demolished. Since the spring of 1939 Germans in the Kočevska region were re-allowed to establish societies Kulturbund, so on 30. 4. 1939 one was established also in Onek. 

As the Kočevska region became part of The Royal Italy in 1941, German authorities called the Gottschee Germans to move to Posavje and Posotelje. 111 of them, out of 29 houses, decided for this. Almost all of them were farmers, some of them were workers, one was tailor and two were carpenters. The empty village was burnt down by the Italian Army someday in the summer of 1942. 

The Kočevje farming development plan, which was designed in 1947 and missed its aim, projected a ward in Onek with dairy farms in Mačkovec, Rajhenav and Cvišlerji. It introduced collective farming, fruit-growing and beekeeping, but pasture stockbreeding was at the top place. At that time, the emptied village saw immigrating of people from all parts of the country, but mainly from Prekmurje. In 1958 a school was re-established in Onek, only to work for seven years. After the wane of the socialistic farming project the large state stables in Onek were ruined, too. Which brought decreasing of population number, but in the last years it grows again. In 2012 there are 43 people living in Onek. 

At the west brim of village once a chapel of St Cosimo and Damien stood. After World War II there were still masses at it. In 1955 it was already de-equipped, serving as a hay warehouse. And later on it was moved out of the way.

Above the settlement there is a popular pilgrimage hill – a sightseeing point at the Reška walking path: Lovski vrh or Annaberg. The way to top is marked with green printing of a bear foot on the white surface. At the top there are several small cottages and a striking steel tower for telecommunications, which degrades all natural elements nearby. There are no permanent residents. 

Only crown spreading limes are bearing witness of the symbolic significance of spot. The archaeologists verified a prehistoric settlement there – an ancient fort from the Iron Age in several layers. St Anne’s Church was standing here approx. since 1500. It was pulled down in the middle of 20th century. Now it is moderately substituted with St Anne’s Chapel, raised in 2003. 

Onek formally directs a graveyard of post-war victims beneath Kren and its’ memorial chapel, crosses and other commemorative signs.

 

Predstavitev vasi v besedi in sliki

  • All
  • Borovec Pri Kočevki Reki
  • Czmk
  • GLAŽUTA, Karlshütten, Gloschhittn
  • INLAUF, Inlauf, Inlaf
  • Izgubljene Kočevarske Vasi
  • JELENDOL, Hirisgruben
  • KUKOVO, Rapljevo, Kukundorf, Kukndoarf
  • Mitja Ferenc
  • Morobitz
  • Mröbitz
  • Nemška Loka, Unterdeutschau, Agə
  • ONEK, Honegg, Wrneggə
  • RAJHENAV, Reichenau, Reichenagə
  • Rajndol, Reintal, Reintol
  • Tvkocevje
  • VERDRENG Podlesje, Verdreng, Vərdreng