Projekt Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

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  • O projektu Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

    Od srede 14. stoletja do leta 1942 je bilo na Kočevskem okrog 800 kvadratnih kilometrov veliko nemško jezikovno območje. Nacistična okupacijska oblast, ki je iz večih dežel v Evropi množično preseljevala svoje rojake v rajh, je po italijanski zasedbi Kočevske leta 1941 preselila tudi majhno (okoli 12.000 oseb) nemško narodnostno skupino na Kočevskem. Določili so ji območje ob Savi in Sotli na Spodnjem Štajerskem, s katerega so pred tem izgnali večino Slovencev.Po drugi svetovni vojni je bila usoda kočevskih Nemcev takšna kot usoda drugih Nemcev na Slovenskem. Tiste, ki se ob koncu vojne niso umaknili z nemško vojsko, in tudi nekaj tistih, ki so ostali na Kočevskem, so nove jugoslovanske oblastiizgnale v Avstrijo. Kasneje so se razkropili in naselili po avstrijskih in nemških pokrajinah, precej pa jih je odšlo v ZDA. Izselitev kočevskih Nemcev, vojno opustošenje, povojno propadanje ter načrtno rušenje predvsem sakralnih objektov sredi 50. let prejšnjega stoletja, so imeli za to območje daljnosežne in usodne posledice. Več kot polovica od 176 vasi na Kočevskem je bilo porušenih in jo danes prerašča gozd, od 123 cerkva se jih je ohranilo le 28, od okoli 400 kapelic in znamenj jih najdemo le še desetino. Številna pokopališča so zravnana ali pa so bili nemški nagrobniki na njih odstranjeni. Poleg spremenjene narodnostne podobe so se korenito spremenile tudi gospodarske in lastninske razmere in zemljiška sestava območja.Kraški in gozdni teren Kočevskega Roga je s svojimi globokimi brezni po vojni služil tudi za množične poboje nekaj tisoč vrnjenih domobrancev in drugih nasprotnikov partizanskega gibanja. Kmalu so na tem območju nastala kazenska in delovna taborišča in obsežno zaprto območje s posebnim režimom. Danes le še redki materialni ostanki spominjajo na 600 letno navzočnost nemške narodne skupine sredi slovenskega ozemlja. Na predstavitvenih tablah zato s sliko in besedo odkrivamo podobe nekdanjih vasi, krajine in prebivalcev, ki so stoletja sooblikovali Kočevsko. Avtor teksta: dr. Mitja Ferenc

  • O projektu "Izgubljene kočevarske vasi"

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In the south, above the former settlement, there is a sightseeing peak named Krempa (942 m). Krokar is also known as Ravenski Pragozd or Borovška Gora. It is the largest virgin forest complex in Slovenia, and has been left uncultivated since 1885. Only some smaller interventions were made into the woods in the 1950s. The reserve consists of 76.96 ha. Besides being a virgin forest reserve, Krempa is full of daffodils (Narcisus poeticus) and contains the remarkable bella vista point. 

The name Inlauf probably originates from the German word Einlauf, meaning a valley’s gable end. This settlement was mentioned for the first time as Hinlaff in the Registry Book of Kočevska Reka, in 1498, after which it collected four estates. In 1574 Innlauf had only two complete and four halfway estates under seven landlords, or ten households, altogether 35-40 people. Inlauf even had its own mayor in medieval times. Mayors collected and predicted the amounts for socage in order to assure the timely collection of taxes from landowners. For the farmers of Inlauf, payment was due a few days after Saint Martin’s, in the middle of November.

Inlauf was a settlement that looked like a colonists’ road side village. Most of the houses were facing the road with their longer sides, which is not common in the Kočevje region. In the first half of 19th century the settlement had 13 numbered houses. Between 1880 and 1921 the number of residents was steady: 68-80. After 1880 there were 10-22 Slovenians among them. The inhabitants of Inlauf made some of their living by farming, but for the most part they exploited the woods. A greater reduction in the number of inhabitants was recorded in 1931, during the last population census of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, when there were 63 people, which represents one fifth less than ten years before that. 

From the middle of 18th century this place was part of the Municipality of Borovec (less than 1 km away), and from 1933 onward it was part of the Municipality of Kočevska Reka (8 km away). The parish and a school were in Borovec. 

Before World War II there were 18 numbered houses in Inlauf, but four of them had been demolished. During the census before the Gottschee Germans’ emigration, on July 31st, 1941, there were 17 Slovenians living in five houses. In 1941, as part of Der Sturm Borovec, 49 Germans from nine houses left the village on November 25th and 26th. A sketch by the Italian Army, made in spring 1943, shows the village as non-existent. Only one house appears to have been populated. But, at the end of war, there were 27 people here. In the beginning of 1950s this settlement became part of the reticent zone of Kočevska Reka. There were no permanent residents left anymore. In 1953 Inlauf was merged with Borovec. What remained of the abandoned stone houses was used for various construction purposes. 

In the beginning of 1952 a penal colony for men was organised here, at the south edge of the settlement. They built two larger wooden barracks for prisoners, a single barrack for guards, and a kitchen. It was fenced in with barbed wire, and watched by guard-towers. One of the towers was built from the wall of the chapel’s belfry. The chapel stood approximately 120 meters south-east of the village, and not in the centre of the settlement, which was more common for church buildings. In 1955 the colony was abandoned and all remains were removed. Inlauf remained part of the reticent zone until the democratic changes of 1990. In 2013 three houses were populated and carefully cared for. There are stables and cattle-fields nearby. A footpath to Krempa has been made and is accompanied by way-posts. 

At the end of 19th century veterinary surgeon Hans Ganslmayer, PhD, was born in Inlauf. He was an expert on bacteriology and serum therapy. His methods were also adopted for treating humans. 

The chapel of St. Cosimo and Damien stood next to a cart rut in the direction of Gornja Briga, some 120 m to the south-east of the village. It was similar to most of the older churches which supplemented other parishes, and belonged to the Borovec parish. On the west side it had a belfry above the entrance. The square floor-plan of the nave transited into a five-cornered presbytery. The roof was covered with shingles. The little church was probably built in the middle of 18th century, but it certainly was not the first church in Inlauf, as this settlement could not have been without one for two entire centuries. According to oral tradition, the chapel was not damaged during the war. It was taken apart together with the penalty colony in 1955. There is nothing to see of it anymore, and no one knows where the church’s implements are. But the lime tree, which used to stand by it, still grows green. 

 

Predstavitev vasi v besedi in sliki

  • All
  • Borovec Pri Kočevki Reki
  • Czmk
  • GLAŽUTA, Karlshütten, Gloschhittn
  • INLAUF, Inlauf, Inlaf
  • Izgubljene Kočevarske Vasi
  • JELENDOL, Hirisgruben
  • KUKOVO, Rapljevo, Kukundorf, Kukndoarf
  • Mitja Ferenc
  • Morobitz
  • Mröbitz
  • Nemška Loka, Unterdeutschau, Agə
  • ONEK, Honegg, Wrneggə
  • RAJHENAV, Reichenau, Reichenagə
  • Rajndol, Reintal, Reintol
  • Tvkocevje
  • VERDRENG Podlesje, Verdreng, Vərdreng