Projekt Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

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  • O projektu Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

    Od srede 14. stoletja do leta 1942 je bilo na Kočevskem okrog 800 kvadratnih kilometrov veliko nemško jezikovno območje. Nacistična okupacijska oblast, ki je iz večih dežel v Evropi množično preseljevala svoje rojake v rajh, je po italijanski zasedbi Kočevske leta 1941 preselila tudi majhno (okoli 12.000 oseb) nemško narodnostno skupino na Kočevskem. Določili so ji območje ob Savi in Sotli na Spodnjem Štajerskem, s katerega so pred tem izgnali večino Slovencev.Po drugi svetovni vojni je bila usoda kočevskih Nemcev takšna kot usoda drugih Nemcev na Slovenskem. Tiste, ki se ob koncu vojne niso umaknili z nemško vojsko, in tudi nekaj tistih, ki so ostali na Kočevskem, so nove jugoslovanske oblastiizgnale v Avstrijo. Kasneje so se razkropili in naselili po avstrijskih in nemških pokrajinah, precej pa jih je odšlo v ZDA. Izselitev kočevskih Nemcev, vojno opustošenje, povojno propadanje ter načrtno rušenje predvsem sakralnih objektov sredi 50. let prejšnjega stoletja, so imeli za to območje daljnosežne in usodne posledice. Več kot polovica od 176 vasi na Kočevskem je bilo porušenih in jo danes prerašča gozd, od 123 cerkva se jih je ohranilo le 28, od okoli 400 kapelic in znamenj jih najdemo le še desetino. Številna pokopališča so zravnana ali pa so bili nemški nagrobniki na njih odstranjeni. Poleg spremenjene narodnostne podobe so se korenito spremenile tudi gospodarske in lastninske razmere in zemljiška sestava območja.Kraški in gozdni teren Kočevskega Roga je s svojimi globokimi brezni po vojni služil tudi za množične poboje nekaj tisoč vrnjenih domobrancev in drugih nasprotnikov partizanskega gibanja. Kmalu so na tem območju nastala kazenska in delovna taborišča in obsežno zaprto območje s posebnim režimom. Danes le še redki materialni ostanki spominjajo na 600 letno navzočnost nemške narodne skupine sredi slovenskega ozemlja. Na predstavitvenih tablah zato s sliko in besedo odkrivamo podobe nekdanjih vasi, krajine in prebivalcev, ki so stoletja sooblikovali Kočevsko. Avtor teksta: dr. Mitja Ferenc

  • O projektu "Izgubljene kočevarske vasi"

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Nemška Loka and neighbouring Gornja (Nemška) Loka got their names after nationality of people, who lived there. In 1574 the settlement named Teutschau had six estates (called huba), divided in 12 halfway farms for 14 landlords. 

During Turkish incursion period the villagers were sending signals about the intrusions to Kočevje and Poljanski grad. They burnt a smaller pile for fire to be seen as far as the eye can reach or they fire with a smaller cannon to warn of a danger. The village was shaped as a roadside settlement. The valley was grassy, with some fruit trees, and mostly beech-rimmed. 

Growing of population by number is recorded mainly during the census in 1869, when there were 122 people living in Nemška Loka. And in 1880 they counted 217 inhabitants – the most in the entire history of village. The two quite different numbers are indicating possibility that during the census some of the people were actually away, peddling. As in other villages in the Kočevje region, before the end of a century and until World War I people emigrated. Then the previous population was lesser for a quater. A decreasing of the number of inhabitants continued between the wars, so in 1931 they counted only 103 people remaining at 29 houses. During the Austrian censuses there were only a handful of people speaking Slovenian. 

The villagers of Nemška Loka made their living mainly by farming, exploiting the woods and peddling. The municipality was small, including just this village and Prerigelj. Located at Nemška Loka were: a municipality seat, a parish and a school, but also a post office and a fire brigade. The centre of the village was marked by a well and two mighty lime trees. Once there was a chapel, too. A school was built in 1860 right bellow the church. Before that, the teaching was at private houses - until 1919 only in German, but later on also in Slovenian. After rearrangement of municipalities in 1933, the village was included in the municipality of Koprivnik (5 km away).

After Kulturbund was made legal again by the Yugoslavian authorities in 1939, on 30th April of the same year it was established also in Nemška Loka. In 1941, between 28th November and 2nd December, due to a call by the German authorities, 105 Germans departed, leaving 35 houses.  During the war the village was burnt down by the Italian Army, so after the war only 11 houses were fit for use and populated with 48 people. 

By building the stables of agricultural cooperative, Nemška Loka should be revived.  In 1953 there were already 77 people in the village – the greatest number after the war. But afterwards the number of people slowly decreased. Approximately ten families held very small private plots and after the stables were abandoned, they started working as foresters or farmers for The Kočevje Farm and Forestry Company. In the middle of 1960s there were ten families: five with Slovenian origin, three families came from Bosnia, one from Croatia, and one family had Romany origin. In 2011 Nemška Loka gathered 31 permanent residents, among them the Hobič family – masters of ample farmyards. 

A house No. 10  (Krasch) is a birthplace of Ernst Eppich (1920 – 2007), for many years the president of Gottscheer Relief Association in New York.

Dominating over the slope above the village, there is a mighty ruin of The Church of The Comforting Virgin Mary. It was built in 1763 with a help by the Prince Auersperg’s family. Then it was the tallest church in the Kočevje region, but in the 20th century this title went to the church in Kočevje. Pilgrims came to Nemška Loka in great number. In 1828 the church got a parish ordination to become the seat of a parish in 1854. There were four altars in the church. The main one had a portrait of The Virgin Mary. After World War II the church still had an active part in the community. It was mined in 1951. In this way one of the belfries was completely demolished and during that time also the equipment vanished. Today sheep take an occasional shelter in the ruins. 

Predstavitev vasi v besedi in sliki

  • All
  • Borovec Pri Kočevki Reki
  • Czmk
  • GLAŽUTA, Karlshütten, Gloschhittn
  • INLAUF, Inlauf, Inlaf
  • Izgubljene Kočevarske Vasi
  • JELENDOL, Hirisgruben
  • KUKOVO, Rapljevo, Kukundorf, Kukndoarf
  • Mitja Ferenc
  • Morobitz
  • Mröbitz
  • Nemška Loka, Unterdeutschau, Agə
  • ONEK, Honegg, Wrneggə
  • RAJHENAV, Reichenau, Reichenagə
  • Rajndol, Reintal, Reintol
  • Tvkocevje
  • VERDRENG Podlesje, Verdreng, Vərdreng