Projekt Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

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  • O projektu Izgubljene kočevarske vasi

    Od srede 14. stoletja do leta 1942 je bilo na Kočevskem okrog 800 kvadratnih kilometrov veliko nemško jezikovno območje. Nacistična okupacijska oblast, ki je iz večih dežel v Evropi množično preseljevala svoje rojake v rajh, je po italijanski zasedbi Kočevske leta 1941 preselila tudi majhno (okoli 12.000 oseb) nemško narodnostno skupino na Kočevskem. Določili so ji območje ob Savi in Sotli na Spodnjem Štajerskem, s katerega so pred tem izgnali večino Slovencev.Po drugi svetovni vojni je bila usoda kočevskih Nemcev takšna kot usoda drugih Nemcev na Slovenskem. Tiste, ki se ob koncu vojne niso umaknili z nemško vojsko, in tudi nekaj tistih, ki so ostali na Kočevskem, so nove jugoslovanske oblastiizgnale v Avstrijo. Kasneje so se razkropili in naselili po avstrijskih in nemških pokrajinah, precej pa jih je odšlo v ZDA. Izselitev kočevskih Nemcev, vojno opustošenje, povojno propadanje ter načrtno rušenje predvsem sakralnih objektov sredi 50. let prejšnjega stoletja, so imeli za to območje daljnosežne in usodne posledice. Več kot polovica od 176 vasi na Kočevskem je bilo porušenih in jo danes prerašča gozd, od 123 cerkva se jih je ohranilo le 28, od okoli 400 kapelic in znamenj jih najdemo le še desetino. Številna pokopališča so zravnana ali pa so bili nemški nagrobniki na njih odstranjeni. Poleg spremenjene narodnostne podobe so se korenito spremenile tudi gospodarske in lastninske razmere in zemljiška sestava območja.Kraški in gozdni teren Kočevskega Roga je s svojimi globokimi brezni po vojni služil tudi za množične poboje nekaj tisoč vrnjenih domobrancev in drugih nasprotnikov partizanskega gibanja. Kmalu so na tem območju nastala kazenska in delovna taborišča in obsežno zaprto območje s posebnim režimom. Danes le še redki materialni ostanki spominjajo na 600 letno navzočnost nemške narodne skupine sredi slovenskega ozemlja. Na predstavitvenih tablah zato s sliko in besedo odkrivamo podobe nekdanjih vasi, krajine in prebivalcev, ki so stoletja sooblikovali Kočevsko. Avtor teksta: dr. Mitja Ferenc

  • O projektu "Izgubljene kočevarske vasi"

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The experts claim that a Slovenian word Dranc originates from the German words Gedränge, Bedrängnis, and from the German expression: “ist der Ort, wo der Wald verdrängt wurde ” - meaning a space, where the grounds are cultivated. I. Simonič, a historian, believes that it is about the settlement, which bore a German locality name, as it was founded by joint efforts of the Germans and the Slovenians.  

In the Kočevje Registry Book from 1574 the villages Verderb and Verdreng are mentioned together. Their estates (called huba) were divided into 11 halfway farms for 12 landlords. Supposingly, the estates provided living for 45 - 55 people. In the Franciscan Cadastral Register from 1824 Verdreng is registered as 16 houses. They were standing around a square empty space in the middle, next to a way passing The Church of St. John the Baptist, close to a water hole. The inhabitants were farmers, making their living by stockbreeding and peddling. They were not well-off, so their homes were relatively poor. 

A school was founded in 1893. The teaching was only in German until 1919, but later on also in Slovenian. The school was visited by the children from  Verdreng, Verderb, Turkova Draga and Zgornji Pokštajn. In 1908 the villagers of Verdrenk founded a fire brigade, but then a section of the Red Cross and the Adriatic Watch were there already. The Lexicon of Dravska banovina describes this settlement as an excursion destination for the Gottschee Germans. Most probably going on a pilgrimage to Verdrenška gora contributed. 

The village belonged to the municipality and the parish of Mozelj. It had the greatest number of inhabitants in 1910 - 101. 13 of them were Slovenians. During the last census of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1931) there were 91 inhabitants and 17 houses. The German inhabitants left the village on December 18th, 1941. 78 Germans from 17 houses departed, taking a train from a railway station Stara Cerkev. The settlement was almost empty. During the war it was burnt down by Italian soldiers, so there remained only four houses suitable for living at the end of war. They were populated with 21 people. 

Soon after the war, a penal colony for the prisoners condemned on the political grounds was arranged in this lonely valley. At first just for the women. They dwelled in the edifices south and west of a former school. Later on they were stirred up to Škofja Loka. Back here, the larger edifices were put in order and this became a village of men - prisoners and guards only. The penal colony had a head office at the former school between 1949 and 1953. Approx. 1953 the entire colony was dismissed.  

In 1955 the village was renamed and became Podlesje. It was also united with the neighbouring villages: Lapinje, Spodnji and Zgornji Pokštajn, as well with Verderb. Today there are some holiday cottages in Verdreng, along with the preserved building of former school.  

A subsidiary church of St. John the Baptist was erected during the first quarter of 16th century next to a cart track, which led through the middle of village. On September 8th, 1771, a new one (the baroque style) at the same spot was consecrated. It was constructed characteristically for this region: with one nave and a small presbytery, out of stone, with a ridged roof directly above the presbytery. There was a statue of St. John the Baptist at an altar from 1784(?5). The church got a new image after they built a belfry in 1866. Three bells were hanging in it – the two larger ones were taken by the World War I, but the third one remained. Namely, a priest from Zdihovo buried it into the grounds, before all inhabitants of the village were forced to leave. They got the bell out of soil in 1991 to be transported to Fara. The church itself was severely damaged during the World War II. After this war, it was used as a kitchen for prisoners, but soon it was pulled down and entirely removed. 

A graveyard was northwest from the settlement, approx. 200 m away from the core of village, at left hand side of the road to Rajndol. The tombstones and walls were removed after the World War II and the grounds were evened. One can still notice the foundation of walls in the meadow, hidden beneath a sod. 

Once there stood a smaller chapel of The Virgin Mary on the Hill, at the peak of Verderbška gora, designed for the pilgrimages. Now it would be close to a TV antenna. It was built in 1636. Soon after the World War II the area of Verdreng became part of a greater zone (200 km2) with restricted approach. This restricted zone was the scene of massive demolition of churches in 1950s; among them was also the chapel at Verderbška gora. Again, the bell (orig. 1642) from chapel was buried by the priest from Zdihovo, brought to daylight in 1991 and given to Pokrajinski muzej Kočevje to become part of an exhibition on the destiny of cultural heritage of Gottschee Germans. 

Predstavitev vasi v besedi in sliki

  • All
  • Borovec Pri Kočevki Reki
  • Czmk
  • GLAŽUTA, Karlshütten, Gloschhittn
  • INLAUF, Inlauf, Inlaf
  • Izgubljene Kočevarske Vasi
  • JELENDOL, Hirisgruben
  • KUKOVO, Rapljevo, Kukundorf, Kukndoarf
  • Mitja Ferenc
  • Morobitz
  • Mröbitz
  • Nemška Loka, Unterdeutschau, Agə
  • ONEK, Honegg, Wrneggə
  • RAJHENAV, Reichenau, Reichenagə
  • Rajndol, Reintal, Reintol
  • Tvkocevje
  • VERDRENG Podlesje, Verdreng, Vərdreng